Ask a dozen people what makes someone creative and you’ll probably hear answers like cleverness or mental acuity. But researchers Brian J. Lucas and Loran F. Nordgren of Northwestern University have been digging into what really makes creative people tick.
What they’re finding is that the most creative people – the folks with the truly novel and useful solutions – are the ones that don’t give up easily.
Persist, and then persist again
Lucas and his team are promoting persistence as a principle pathway to creative performance. There’s a load of historical research and anecdotal evidence to support this belief. Everything from Edison testing thousands of theories before inventing the light bulb to Csikszentmihalyi’s introduction of the concept of flow.
The researchers at Northwestern wanted to see if people actually recognize the value and importance of persisting when idea generation gets difficult. Their basic hypothesis: “People generally underestimate the value of persisting on creative tasks.”
After a series of 7 cleverly constructed creativity experiments, a few things are clear:
- People perceive being creative as difficult.
- The best ideas are often produced later rather than early in the creative process.
- People probably abandon the creative process before coming up with their best ideas.
Creativity: The generation of ideas and solutions that are novel or useful to a given situation.
On being creative…
Before we take a look at the studies and results, let’s examine creativity. Specifically, why it’s generally considered difficult to “be creative?”
The researchers identified two attributes of creativity that are illustrative of its perceived difficulty, and I think these are both fantastically insightful.
First, creativity is a two-stage, iterative mental process. In stage one, we scour our long-term memory for anything associated with whatever it is we’re trying to be creative about. In the second stage, we apply, break apart and reform associated knowledge to form new ideas.
People move back and forth between memory and idea generation in an attempt to create something novel and useful. If you think about it for a bit, there are four logical outcomes to this process.
- Booo… We fail, and no association is made.
- Yawn… We come up with something commonplace – an idea that lacks novelty.
- Meh… We make an association, but it doesn’t prove useful. (Remember our definition? We’re looking for creative solutions that are novel or useful!)
- Eureka! We’ve come up with a cool, new idea.
This is a grueling mental process. It’s hard to be creative because of all the false starts and unsatisfactory ideas. Perseverance is necessary to win the numbers game!
The second attribute pointing to the difficulty of creativity is that, unlike defined processes and procedures, it’s really tough to verbalize your progress toward a creative goal.
The example that Lucas and his team used to illustrate this is a math problem. Try adding two large numbers together. It’s pretty easy to figure how close you are to having the correct answer, right?
Not so for creative challenges. Think of the last time you were trying to come up with a creative solution for some problem. At any point, could you tell someone how close you were to a breakthrough moment of insight?
Probably not. That progress isn’t really something you can measure.
And because of these attributes, it’s easy to think that being creative is hard. The researchers at Northwestern put that perception to the test to see if we can be more creative if we keep working when others might give up.
I won’t go into each of the 7 studies in detail. I think the first experiment is the most informative. Also, the paper published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology is available on Lucas’ website and it’s well worth a read.
Lucas and Nordgren invited participants to take 10 minutes to generate creative answers to a simple question. All they were asked to do was come up with a list of things to eat and drink at Thanksgiving.
After coming up with a list of ideas, each participant was asked to estimate how many more ideas they could make with a subsequent “persistence phase.” The researchers then compared the estimates with the actual number of new ideas produced.
The participants came up with nearly 22 initial ideas on average. When asked how many new ideas they could come up with if they kept working, the average answer was 10 more ideas. Interestingly, their predictions for performance in the persistence period was much lower than the number of ideas actually produced (15).
And here’s the coolest part…
The researchers ran all the ideas past another group of test subjects to determine which were the most creative. This shouldn’t come as a surprise at this point, but the participants came up with their best ideas when asked to keep going.
This shows us that:
- People tend to undervalue persistence.
- We are at our most creative when we keep working on a problem, even after we think we have all the answers.
- People who give up too soon or too easily miss out on their best ideas.
It’s worth noting that time has a very real cost. Sometimes – be it in school, work or with a personal project – it’s more important to be finished than to be creative.
But understanding that we tend to shy away from persevering on difficult challenges because it’s just plain hard to come up with new and useful ideas is a valuable bit of information. Knowing this, we can make conscious, deliberate decisions about when to accept an idea as good enough and when to go back to drawing board in search of more creative solutions.
The next time I’ve come up with a new and creative idea, I’m definitely going to pause and wonder if I’m leaving my most creative ideas on the table. And then maybe I’ll set a timer for ten minutes to see if I can come up with something even better.
I recently had the chance to kick the tires of ProWritingAid, an online automated editing service. I rarely get to write product reviews, but the timing on this one worked out perfectly. Particularly given all the just-been-finished NaNoWriMo manuscripts floating around out there.
If you’re one of the many first-time NaNo winners gazing bemusedly at your 50,000-word achievement and wondering, “Now what?” – editing is a fine answer. Editing, however, requires a very different skillset than what’s needed to write an original draft. Luckily for us, there are automated tools that can help us along the way.
What is ProWritingAid?
If you’re reading this website, there’s a good chance you’re interested in leveraging technology to quantify and improve your productivity. RescueTime does that by watching how you spend your time and providing tools on how to use each valuable minute more effectively. ProWritingAid works to provide a similar technological edge, applying rigorous proofing algorithms to written works.
Unlike in-line contextual editors you may be used to with Microsoft Word, Google Docs and Scrivener, ProWritingAid doesn’t track words as you produce them. Instead, it offers a series of tests that may be applied to a finished manuscript, work-in-progress, business report — anything written, really.
Most of us take things like spell-checkers and contextual grammar editors for granted in our word processor of choice. We see a word underlined in red and right click to correct it. They’ve worked that way for decades.
ProWritingAid will definitely edit for spelling and grammar, as well. However, the program is intended to do more than simply correct writing mistakes. It is also meant to teach; improving a writer’s skill by identifying overused words and phrases, highlighting cliché passages and generally improving grammar and diction.
Features I liked
There are a ton of editorial tests – called “Checks” – available in ProWritingAid. And both the online and plug-in versions allow writers to mix and match features into a more comprehensive, customized “Combo Check.”
I’ll talk about the online app versus the plug-in installations in a little later, but first I wanted to talk about the editing tools I found most valuable.
Hands down, my favorite tool is the Repeat Words & Phrases report. We all have our little pet verbs and descriptive phrases, right? Those comfortable writing crutches we lean on when we get stuck. This is a great tool to ferret out those overused passages.
I’ve got one of these writing tics that shows up in first drafts of my fiction. My characters all seem to need something to do with their heads, and each one of them comes to the apparently universal decision to nod like a lunatic when speaking. Each time I read one of my early drafts I am greeted by a cast of bobble-heads.
The Repeat Words & Phrases report alone is probably worth giving ProWritingAid a look.
The Writing Style Check is probably most analogous to traditional word processing tools Microsoft Word’s contextual grammar checker. You know, the green, underlined reminder-bits we get every time we try to use a semicolon?
The report seems comprehensive, and it’s interesting to see all those passive verbs and repetitive sentence structures bundled up into a single report.
I have a reasonable grasp on grammar and my drafts are usually pretty clean. Even so, it’s educational to see where I’m leaning on adverbs a bit too heavily or using needlessly complex wording.
The system also makes suggestions to improve readability, and I agreed with the recommendations more often than not. For me these suggestions usually showed up as unnecessary qualifiers like “very” or “some.” I’m curious to see how the mileage varies for other users. If you try out the app, definitely let me know in the comments.
Choose your editing experience
ProWritingTools is available online as a browser-based application, and also as plugin for Microsoft Word or Google Docs.
I tested the app using a premium account and the interface is a straightforward, predictable web utility.
Understanding the results generated by each of the editing checks was also relatively simple. There is a user manual available on the web site, but I didn’t need to use it. Perhaps it’s a valuable tool for interpreting report results if you don’t have a lot of experience with editing and grammar.
Most of my work with ProWritingAid happened in Google Docs. The add-on was simple to install in both Google Chrome and Safari. Again, the interface was intuitive. I tried to duplicate everything I did in Google Docs on the website version. Although the interface was different, I didn’t notice any variations in the meat of the reports.
The one add-on I couldn’t test was ProWritingAid’s Microsoft Word integration. That plug-in is only available for Windows versions of Word, although not through a lack of interest by the developers. The Mac OS versions of Word simply don’t support the creation or installation of add-ons.
Another tool in the toolbox
Don’t expect manuscript editing software to shore up a weak plot or fact-check statistical figures. That’s why developmental editors have jobs. However, content editing and proofreading are laboriously detail-oriented tasks. I think ProWritingAid is a reasonable way to ease that editing burden.
I believe the tool is best suited for newer writers, or writers without a high degree of confidence in their prose and grammar. That said, established writers might benefit from testing a chapter or two to identify overused word or phrases. Or to see if they’re slipping into bad habits.
If you think you might enjoy something more robust than your stereotypical spell-checker, ProWritingAid might be a great place to start.
If you’re interested, head over to ProWritingAid.com and check out their free or premium versions.
Before reading any further, take a look at the clock. Jot down the time. I know, it’s a weird way to start a blog post, but it will make sense in a bit, I promise.
How much time do you spend reading news articles or blog posts? If you’re like most people, you spend at least a few minutes per day catching up on current events or what your favorite blogs are writing about. One way to check is to look at your RescueTime report for News and Opinion – last month I spent over thirteen hours on it. It may or may not take up huge amounts of time for you, but wouldn’t it be nice to get some of that time back for other things? What if you could read twice as fast and still retain the same amount of information? Seems great, but I’m not sure I want it quite enough to invest the effort in learning to speed read.
That’s why I was really intrigued to see a presentation at last month’s Quantified Self 2015 European Conference. Kyrill Potapov gave a fascinating talk about his experience with Spritz, a new technology that promises to make it easy to dramatically increase your normal reading speed. That’s normally a marketing claim I’d be skeptical of, but one of the great things about Quantified Self talks is that they generally come packed with data.
Kyrill doesn’t work for Spritz – he’s a secondary school teacher in London – but he was interested enough in increasing his reading efficiency that he sought out the tool and tracked his progress as he used it. And the results were dramatic. He was able to increase his average reading speed by nearly 100%, up to over 400 words per minute. The best part was, it didn’t seem like it took all that much effort on his part. No special training, no exercises, just start reading using the app.
The method Spritz uses is called Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) and it works by reducing the amount of distance your eye has to travel while reading. Instead of scanning back and forth across lines of text, the words are presented in a rapid continuous stream one at a time. There is technically more to it than that, but that’s the main thing you will notice when you try it. As far as I can tell, this makes reading faster in two ways. First, you shave off the fractions of a second your eye usually spends moving from word to word – or line to line. Second, as words are only displayed once, you are forced to pay attention or you will miss out. It’s a different experience than reading normal text, but not an unpleasant one. In fact, the need to pay attention was so apparent that I found it easier to tune out outside distractions.
There are several apps that use the Spritz technology, so in theory it should be easy to start using it. In practice it was a little harder than I wanted it to be. Many apps involved copying and pasting large blocks of text into a text field, which is more cumbersome than I will probably use and felt like little more than a fun demonstration. That said, there is a Chrome extension called Readline that seems to work really well. When I’m on a page I want to read quickly, I just highlight the text, right click and select “start Readline”.
I’m currently reading at about 400 words per minute, and I feel like I retain most of what I read. There are a few places it completely falls apart – like reading a long news article that has ads mingling with the content. But so long as I’m careful about which text I select, it seems like it really helps. There is some debate about whether or not Spritz enables anything more than skimming, but when I’m reading news or blog posts I’m usually not extraordinarily invested in the content in the first place. In fact, in a context like that where I’m likely skimming anyway, Spritz actually makes me absorb more by forcing me through the whole post linearly.
So if you are looking for an easy hack that can save a few minutes each day, give Spritz a try, and let us know in the comments what you think of it.
Oh, one more thing. Remember when I asked you to look at the clock at the start of the post? Check the time now. How many minutes did it take you to get here? This post is about 800 words, so if you were reading with Spritz set at 400 wpm, this post would take you 2 minutes. 🙂
National Novel Writing Month is just days away, and RescueTime is proud to sponsor this amazing event. For the uninitiated, NaNoWriMo is a worldwide program supporting aspiring writers on their quests to become novelists.
How? By equipping them to write a 50,000-word novel in 30 days.
Whether you’re a first-timer or a grizzled, word-slinging veteran, NaNoWriMo is a marathon test of a writer’s dedication and endurance. And just like you wouldn’t run a marathon without a personal strategy for success, NaNoWriMo participants that show up on November 1st with a plan will have the best shot at crossing the finish line with a 50,000-word rough draft.
In this post, we’re going to focus on the math behind clobbering your 50k goal. It’s worth noting, however, that outlining your novel, character essays and world building can all factor in to your plan of attack. Regardless of your upfront effort, come November 1, the only thing that matters is hitting the 50k mark before the clock ticks down to midnight on the 30th.
Every damn day
Professional authors are notorious for offering one recurring piece of advice to young writers, “Write every day.”
In practice, writing every day may not be an option for many people. Yet at its core this common counsel is an admonishment for new writers to make a habit of committing words to the page on some sort of regular, scheduled basis.
Maybe you believe that new habits can be formed in 21 days, a figure commonly – and perhaps mistakenly – attributed to 1960s surgeon Maxwell Maltz. Or perhaps you buy into more recent research from the University College London that claims 66 days are required to form a habit. Either way, writing every day can make the unfamiliar and daunting prospect of weaving fiction from the aether become common and comfortable.
Many writers approach NaNoWriMo with a write-every-day strategy. This means 1,670 words from brain to fingers and out onto the page every day for 30 days. This method grants the lowest possible daily word count, and also helps jumpstart your habit-forming countdown to becoming a habitual writer.
Note that if you can only write on weekdays, the daily word requirement jumps to 2,380 words per day. And if you can only write on weekend days, well… good luck and make sure you have ice for your wrists!
One way to stack the odds (or words?) in your favor is to capitalize on early enthusiasm and any advanced groundwork you’ve prepared in anticipation of NaNoWriMo. Many WriMos use the surge of November 1st excitement to fuel an ambitious DORG – that is, a Day One Ridiculous Goal.
I’ve been writing professionally for most of my adult life. I’ve been seriously pursuing my fiction work for over half a decade. I’ve written multiple novels, sell thousands of non-fiction words every month and have published both novellas and short stories. Even still, my greatest ever single-day word count is 10,112 words and it damn near killed me.
It was a ridiculous goal. In fact, it was a challenge made to all attendees at a writing retreat and each one of us that broke the 10k mark received a homemade pie of our choosing. Mine was a peanut butter chocolate silk, and the pie damn near killed me, too!
Ermahgerd it was good, but I wouldn’t have earned it without setting the goal and making a personal commitment to achieve it. Even though 10,000 words a day is not a pace that I can or care to sustain, I know that, for me, it’s doable. And it’s a legitimate way to kick start a new project.
One good thing about NaNoWriMo this year is that November 1st is on a Sunday and not a regular work or school day. If you can arrange to have the day all to yourself, or with a writing partner or group, maybe a setting a DORG will work for you.
Consider for a moment the impact that a 10,000-word day one will have on your daily word requirement for the rest of the month. It drops that daily obligation to 1,380.
Don’t think you have a 10k day in you? You can still drop that daily word requirement by nearly 120 words with a 5k DORG.
Slow and steady can certainly win the race. Still, if you feel like challenging yourself and capitalizing on early enthusiasm, set a day one goal and make it ridiculous.
What happens when things get hard?
Life happens. Experienced WriMos will tell you that statistically, “life” will probably happen to you somewhere near the start of Week 3.
It could be work that threatens your NaNoWriMo performance. Maybe it’s a sick kid. Hell, it could be family drama at Thanksgiving dinner. Whatever the cause might be, there may come a time when your NaNo-plan starts to unravel.
What can you do to keep a setback from derailing the entire month?
For starters, you can write ahead of schedule if you suspect you might get derailed. In the vein of “the best defense is a good offense,” consider banking some heavy writing days early in the month. This can give you a cushion should the wheels come off the tracks mid-month.
If building an early cushion is not an option and you find yourself behind, take heart. You still have options. They may be the nail-biting, breathless kind of options, but options nonetheless.
Your first is to simply up your daily word count. Your NaNoWriMo profile will help you track your progress and update your daily requirements to finish on time. Alternatively, you can chip away at the word deficit with some early morning or weekend sprint sessions.
Either way, playing catch-up is probably going to be more difficult than sticking to a plan. Think ahead and plan out the month now. If you have a plan that’s worked well in the past, please share it in the comments. Also, if you think you’re onto a killer strategy and want some feedback, clue us in now and let us know how it’s going as the month progresses.
Good luck, WriMos! And if you haven’t yet, take advantage of our NaNoWriMo promo and get RescueTime premium free for the entire month of Nomember.
If you’ve found this column, we probably share a few things in common. Like me, you may be at your best with a great many irons in the proverbial fire. I bet you keep yourself busy and nurse a hunger for getting things done.
The past few months, my drive to tackle new projects has generated a daunting slate of work. I’ve been blessed with an attractive array of interesting projects, and that’s when I really need to ensure that my keyboard time is converted into an actual work product.
And that’s a good thing. Like I said, I’m at my best when busy.
But committing to aggressive schedules does create a challenge. I need to ensure that the minutes and hours I spend are productive. I need to ask myself two questions:
How do I know if I’m succeeding? And what can I do to set myself up for success?
Counting words and getting sh** done
Most activities lend themselves to some sort of quantifiable performance measurement. For writers, that metric is word count.
“I tend, by now, to think in terms of word counts not hours.” – Guy Gavriel Kay
“I’m writing a novel,” is a commendable, yet unimpressive statement if you’re only grinding out 150 words a day. Gee, that’s super swell. I’m really looking forward to reading the rough draft… in like, 3 years.
On the other hand, if you’re churning through 500 words an hour? Well now we’re talking!
Word count is a meaningful measuring stick for writers because it reflects results achieved rather than merely cataloguing effort expended.
Taking the pulse
RescueTime’s Productivity Pulse is similar in this regard. It is an accurate look back at how we’ve made use of our time at the keyboard. Just like tracking my word count, monitoring my Productivity Pulse is a useful and highly visual way to hold myself personally accountable for working efficiently. But we need a goal to work toward if we want to see our productivity increase over time, a goal and the tools necessary to achieve it.
“When asked, ‘How do you write?’ I invariably answer, ‘One word at a time,’” – Stephen King
A few weeks ago, I posted about using the Pomodoro technique to increase productivity by dedicating short sprints of time to specific tasks or distraction-free work. If words-per-hour is my measure of productivity, a series of sprints toward my daily word goal seems like a reasonable and efficient strategy for success.
But it’s SO easy to become derailed by “important” distractions like research and email, or social media indulgences that I know I’ll regret later.
That’s where Focus Time comes in.
I actually use the Pomodoro technique quite a bit, although I don’t use a physical timer or one of the many smartphone Pomodoro apps. Instead, I use the “Get Focused…” option that RescueTime put on my computers toolbar.
Not only does it time my work sprints, FocusTime blocks online distractions that might otherwise devalue my efforts.
For me, FocusTime is a strict upgrade to my old Pomodoro timer.
Reflect on the past, Focus on results
Tracking word count is by its very nature a look back in time. It is a reflective process and one that is beneficial only in that it illustrates past performance. It is not inherently useful in assuring current performance. And tracking it certainly won’t guarantee productivity in the future.
Like financial accounting, word count reports what has been accomplished in the past.
“Word count has value in that it measures actual effort.” – Chuck Wendig
It is valuable to know where we’ve come from, to have a baseline and to understand what we’ve been able to accomplish in the past. But what if we need to ensure a certain level of current performance? And what if we want to improve performance over time?
To continue the accounting metaphor, we need a budget. Some goals to aim for.
Whether it’s words per hour, lines of code or bullet points ruthlessly purged from a to-do list, we can set meaningful and manageable short-term goals, then continuously work towards improving them. Having a measurable task at hand (e.g. “Write 200 words in the next half hour”) can give us a new lens to look back on past performance, and help us find new ways to eliminate distractions.
“Just write. Many writers have a vague hope that elves will come in the night and finish any stories for you. They won’t.” – Neil Gaiman
When you decide to work, commit. Eliminate distractions and focus on the job. It won’t finish for you, so find the tools and tricks you need to be productive.
Sweep distractions free from your path, if even only for a time. And then focus on the next word, the next task, or the next bit of logic. When you truly need to produce measurable results, be single-minded and ruthlessly efficient with your time.
Big news! We launched a channel on IFTTT this week, and it opens up a bunch of different possibilities for using your RescueTime data with your favorite apps and devices.
If you’re unfamiliar, IFTTT stands for: “If This Then That”, is pronounced like: “GIFT”, and is a service that lets you take actions in one app in response to actions in another. Since you spend so much of your time plugged into your digital devices, there are a LOT of actions you can take.
IFTTT channels have two parts. The first are Triggers – things that happen in your app than can cause things to happen in others. Second are Actions – things that can respond to a Trigger in another app. The combination of a Trigger and an Action is called a Recipe.
The RescueTime IFTTT channel has four triggers…
…and two Actions.
You can connect our channel to any of the hundreds of other channels on IFTTT (although some of them make a lot more sense then others). IFTTT has channels for business apps, smartphones, social networks, even home automation devices.
The possibilities are nearly endless, but here are a few of the Recipes we really like:
Silence your phone while in a FocusTime session
Use Google Calendar to start a FocusTime session…
…or add a do-not-disturb note when FocusTime starts
Set up a productivity light
IFTTT has several channels that will let you control a light (or a set of lights). You can use the Recipes below with the Phillips Hue, ORBneXt, and Blink(1) channels.
Adjust your thermostat while in a FocusTime session
If you want to give yourself some extra motivation, set your Nest thermostat to something really comfortable either while you are in a FocusTime session, or after you’ve completed a few hours of productive work.
Use alerts to post messages to Slack
You can use RescueTime alerts as an automated way to humblebrag (or publicly shame yourself) to your coworkers.
Get a phone call whenever an alert is triggered
This one is super effective for getting me to stop working when it’s late at night. I have an alert set up for “more than 30 minutes of productive time between midnight and 4am”. When my phone rings in the middle of the night, that momentary “who the hell is calling me at 1am?!?!” feeling is the BEST way to knock me out of the workaholic hole I’ve fallen into.
Save daily summaries in a Google Sheet
This one is great if you just want to pull some specific data over time into a spreadsheet. It’s perfect for Quantified Self projects where you’re tracking one metric (say, hours of productive time) against another data source (like your daily exercise or sleep).
We’re particularly excited about the FocusTime Triggers and Actions, which let you tailor your FocusTime experience in some really powerful ways. You can read more on that over here.
What recipes have you come up with? Share your favorites in the comments!